Considers technical, political, and economic issues improve the safety of nuclear power plants due to the layout of underground reactor or the entire station. The analysis of the experience of the construction and operation of underground nuclear power plants (UNPP) in the various countries of the world. Characteristics of newly built, designed UNPP and their application. Possible variants of reactor plants for UNPP. The conclusion about the prospect of building innovative direction UNPP small and medium power for some industrial regions of Russia with regard to their reliability, safety, cost-effectiveness.