The article dedicated to comparing the results of mathematical modeling of the interaction between toothed wheels with the results of tests. The analysis of the literature in the field of experimental study of wear in gears and transmissions to highlight the most appropriate conditions for the comparison. We have studied the methods of mathematical modeling of gears and transmissions. We have identified the most appropriate mathematical model for comparison with in situ tests. We have revealed the peculiarities in comparing the results of mathematical modeling and tests. Wear diagrams obtained by calculation and experiment are presented. We have performed a comparison of the experimental results, and mathematical modeling at different stages of wear of the gears and described the mathematical model. We have verified the method of experimental and computational studies of the process of wear and designing wear-resistant gears and transmissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the results of mathematical modeling of gear wear process, which takes into account the evolutionary nature of the interaction process, by comparison with the result of in situ tests.