The paper considers some problems of developing the measures on prevention of marine pollution and elimination of oil spills under ice cover. We have discussed problems of economic effectiveness taking into account the capital cost of the environment protection. An important factor of effective prevention of oil spills is international collaboration in the field of production of effective equipment for operations on eliminating oil spills under ice cover. A key factor of combatting oil spills is finding and tracking their motion influenced by water currents and ice bottom surface characteristics. It is necessary to develop a mathematical model based on experimental and theoretical data. There are some reasons explaining such data. First, field experiments take a lot of efforts, time etc., at the same time laboratory experiments do not provide accurate results. Secondly, mathematical description of tracking oil spills under the ice cover requires information about current parameters and roughness of the bottom surface of ice cover which usually not known. A serious problem is developing the equipment for elimination of oil spills.