The article reviews the problems associated with development of the electric power industry in Kazakhstan. We have devised a methodological approach to identifying the main problems of the industry’s development, a three-stage scheme for solving problems and multidimensional ranging procedures, allowing to establish the priorities for the development of the industry in conjunction with the key goals of the country. The proposed methodological approach to choosing the main problems of the branch, that is, the electric power industry, should perhaps make it possible to use ideas and some parts of this approach in other areas or complex sectors of the economy. A new element, which is taking into account the main interests of the region during significant changes in energy enterprises, was added to the supplementary elements of the planning scheme for the development strategy of energy companies that we previously proposed (consideration of the country’s main problems; optimization of financial and organizational forms of enterprises in the industry). A method for such accounting has been developed, based on construction of cognitive maps. The standard of living of the region’s population is taken as the main final parameter of the region. An algorithm is proposed for confirming the presence or absence of links between the politicians and the goals of the industry and the country. The task of the algorithm is to determine whether the given problem is associated with the above indicators. The solution for this task determines the method chosen for solving problem in the algorithm for identifying the main problems of the industry. In this study we have reviewed the development of branches of electronics in Kazakhstan. The goal of the study is in developing the theoretical and methodological guidelines and practical recommendations for identifying priority problems in the power industry for formulating strategic plans for development of the power industry in the country. The following tasks were set and solved to achieve the goal: 1. to develop a methodology for identifying the main economic problems of the power industry in terms of competitiveness; 2. to investigate the existing methodological approaches and propose an original approach to identifying the main problems in the development of the country's electric power industry; 3. to propose a methodology for ranking the priority problems of the industry, based on taking into account the connections of organizational and financial form of enterprises with the growth of innovation, the scale of investment and the level of competitiveness; 4. to develop a toolkit for assessing the impact of the industry’s priority problems on the security level of a country and the life of the population.