The strategy for improving the efficiency and environmental friendliness of heat supply systems should be based on reducing the consumption of thermal energy by the end consumer, as well as reducing losses in the production and transmission of thermal energy. One of the topical areas of research is the development of heat-insulating materials with high heat-insulating properties. This work is devoted to the study and comparison of the properties of heat-insulating materials, as well as the problems that arise during their installation and operation. Mineral wool and aerogel are considered as an example. The prospect of replacing high-temperature thermal insulation, which is widely used in industry, with a modern material developed on the basis of aerogel was studied. The temperature gradient across the thickness of the thermal insulation was calculated using a numerical tool developed in ANSYS. The results show that aerogel outperforms mineral wool in all key thermophysical characteristics. At the same time, the only obstacle to the widespread industrial production and use of aerogel in the high-temperature thermal insulation segment is its market value, which is still several times higher than that of mineral wool with equivalent thermal insulation characteristics.