The interpretations and definitions of such concepts and terms as "substance", "chemical substance", "compound", "chemical compound", "material", "chemical material", "nanomaterial" in modern chemistry, nanochemistry, nanotechnology are determined. The analysis of the system of concepts "substance-compounds-materials" is carried out, various aspects of the concept of "substance", its types and characteristics are considered. The concept of "materials" is interpreted, including in new sections of chemistry and other sciences (nanochemistry, nanotechnology). The areas and boundaries of their application and use in classical and theoretical chemistry, materials science, medicine, oncology, construction, glass science and other fields are considered. On the basis of a systematic and hierarchical approach, the possibilities and limitations of the application of the concepts of "chemical substance", "chemical compounds" and "nanomaterials" in modern science are shown. The "concept" and "term" are also analyzed.