https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=63334
2687-1300
Materials Science. Power Engineering
26
4
2020
1-144
RAR
RUS
5-22
Borovkov
Alexey
Voynov Igor B.
Peter the Great St. Petersburg polytechnic university
voinov@compmechlab.com
Galerkin
Yuriy
galerkin@pef.spbstu.ru
Kaminskiy
Roman V.
Drozdov
Alexandr
A_drozdi@mail.ru
Solovyeva
Olga A.
Soldatova
Kristina
buck02@list.ru
MEDIUM-SPEED ENGINE TURBOCHARGER: DESIGN, TESTING AND CFD-CALCULATION
Various approaches and techniques are used to design centrifugal compressors. These are engineering one-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional programs, as well as CFD programs. The final judgment about the effectiveness of the project is given by testing the compressor or its model. SPbPU Research Laboratory “Gas Dynamics of Turbomachines” and NPO “Turbotekhnika” jointly designed a centrifugal compressor for an internal combustion engine turbocharger. To check the dimensionless characteristics, the compressor was tested with two geometrically similar impellers with a diameter of 175 (TKR 175E) and 140 mm (TKR 140E). The mathematical model of the Universal Modeling Method calculates the efficiency in the design mode for all tests of both compressors with an error of 0.89%, and the efficiency for whole characteristic with an error of 1.55%. The characteristics of the TKR 140E compressor were calculated using the commercial CFD program ANSYS. For TKR-140E, we obtained a significant discrepancy in the value of the efficiency, but also a good agreement in the area of operation, which was not obtained in the previous calculations. According to the calculation, the work coefficient is overestimated by 9%, which corresponds to the results of the previous calculations by the authors.
10.18721/JEST.26401
621.515
turbomachinery
centrifugal compressor
impellers
internal combustion engines
efficiency
computational fluid dynamics
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.1/
Borovkov.pdf
RAR
RUS
23-35
Gorynin
Vladimir
z1dehy97@mail.wplus.net
7007045735
0000-0001-7385-147X
Kondrat'ev
Sergey
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia
petroprom2013@yandex.ru
Russia, 195251, St.Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29
Rogozhkin
Vladimir
JSC "Atomproekt"
Mischin
Evgeniy B.
Kolenov
Evgeniy V.
CONDENSATION OF ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE IN THE SEA AREA FOR IN-LINE PRODUCTION OF NATURAL FRESH WATER
The paper considers a promising eco-industrial waste-free W-CONDENSER-technology for the condensation of atmospheric moisture in the waters of the seas (oceans) based on the use of large-sized blocks to reduce the global shortage of fresh water. W-CONDENSER units can produce 4000 tons of fresh water per day and more. W-CONDENSER units are suitable as an eco-industrial system for water supply of the population, industry and agriculture with a dry climate of the territories, as well as for stabilization of natural sources of water supply (rivers, lakes, underground reserves, etc.) subject to the necessary energy supply (NPP, TPP, etc.), atmospheric humidity and favorable sea wind rose of the region. The authors presented a calculated assessment of the main technical parameters of the design and construction of high-power large-sized W-CONDENSER units. Operation of W-CONDENSER provides for obtaining large volumes of fresh water, primarily for drinking purposes, as well as for agricultural, industrial and other needs.
10.18721/JEST.26402
621.762: 551.501.774
fresh water production
environmental technology
heat exchangers
desalination
design and construction
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.2/
Gorinin.pdf
RAR
RUS
36-50
Zakharov
Artem I.
Chizhma
Sergey N.
MODELING A CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LOW-POWER WIND ENERGY PLANT
The article is devoted to efficiency assessment of search algorithms for objective function extremum in wind energy plants (WEP) control systems. Various existing WEP control strategies and their disadvantages have been reviewed. The authors suggest deploying an optimal WEP state search method and using the minimum of the objective function presented in the article, which determines a distance between actual parameters of the plant and their nominal values, as a criterion of optimality for the given method. A number of extremum search algorithms based on gradient search method, steepest descent search method and conjugate gradients method are reviewed. The authors simulated WEP control using the described methods. Based on the conducted simulation, the authors assessed the methods in operation. The paper presented the results of a full day WEP simulation in the conditions of stochastic wind and with the use of load profiles. The progressions of actual plant’s parameters, such as generated electrical power, wind turbine rotation speed, consumed electrical power, state of battery charge, battery current and voltage are demonstrated.
10.18721/JEST.26403
620.92
offshore wind turbines
wind power
power control
renewable energy resources
maximum power point trackers
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.3/
Zaharov%2C-CHizhma.pdf
RAR
RUS
51-63
Kalyutik
Alexandr
Treshchev
Dmitriy
Treshcheva
Milana A.
USE OF RELATIVE FUEL ECONOMY INDICATOR FOR OPTIMIZATION OF CHP CCGT PARAMETERS
The paper justifies a possibility of using an indicator of relative fuel economy in comparison with separate generation of electric power and heat in solving problems related to optimization of combined heat and power combined-cycle gas plants (CHP CCGT) in modern economic conditions. We established the relationship between the value of relative fuel economy in comparison with the separate generation of electric power and heat for CCGT with external (system) conditions, parameters, structure and mode of operation of the power plant, as well as the integral economic effect. It was found that for a given type of gas turbine (GT), the efficiency of the cycle, the specific generation of electricity at thermal consumption and the relative fuel economy in comparison with the separate generation of electric power and heat for CCGT is determined by the parameters of the utilization circuit. It was found, that the coefficient of heat use of fuel of CCGT, practically does not depend on the initial parameters of steam. It was found, that the cycle efficiency, the specific generation of electricity at thermal consumption and relative fuel economy in comparison with the separate generation of electric power and heat for CCGT have a pronounced maximum, achieved at the same value of the initial steam pressure. The initial steam pressure was optimized for a CCGT (based on GT13E2) with a steam circuit of the same pressure level using the indicator of relative fuel economy compared to separate generation of electric power and heat. For this type of CCGT thermal power station, the optimal initial pressure is 5.5-6 MPa, while for a CCGT electric power station (based on GT13E2), the optimal initial steam pressure is 3-3.5 MPa. It was found that external conditions, reflected by the type (efficiency) of the replaced electric power station, have significant impact on the relative fuel economy in comparison with separate generation of electric power and heat for CCGT. The relative fuel economy in comparison with separate generation of electric power and heat for CCGT thermal power station (based on GT13E2) compared to the CCGT electric power station (based on GT13E2) is 26-26.5%, and compared to the steam power plant (based on the C-300-240 serial unit), the relative fuel economy will increase to 37.9%.
10.18721/JEST.26404
621.438
thermoelectric power plants
heating
cogeneration plants
combined cycle power plants
fuel economy
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.4/
Kalyutik%2C-Treshchyova.pdf
RAR
RUS
64-74
Kotlov
Andreii
Peter the Great St. Petersburg polytechnic university
Burakov
Aleksandr
Kuznetsov
Leonid
REDUCING VIBRATION OF A RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR BY ENSURING THE CONSTANT SIGN OF THE TORQUE DIAGRAM
One of the important tasks in the design of reciprocating compressors is ensuring low vibration of the compressor in all operating modes. A variable summand of the rotary mechanism reaction torque, in particular that of the reciprocating compressors, is one of the main sources of their low-frequency vibration. The paper presents research results concerning the influence of different structural parameters on the torque diagram. The authors describe the structural solution aimed at obtaining the most uniform constant-sign diagram of the torque of a multistage reciprocating compressor. The description of a computer program that was specifically developed for this study is given. The developed program makes it possible to carry out calculations for various compressor designs. For this, the authors developed a row designer, which allows taking into account the mutual arrangement of cylinders and the arrangement of steps in rows.
10.18721/JEST.26405
621.512
reciprocating compressor
dynamics
torque
vibration
mathematical modeling
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.5/
Kotlov.pdf
RAR
RUS
75-86
Sologubova
Galina S.
Bogachev
Viktor F.
Gorenburgov
Mikhail A.
BARRIERS OF FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY
Financing of renewable energy sources (RES) is considered a system task in the development of the Russian fuel and energy complex. RES eliminates the problem of shortage and availability of energy infrastructure (generating and grid capacities, means of transporting electricity to the consumer) for remote and island territories of Russia, allows increasing the export potential of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, and supports the high-tech potential in the Russian electric power industry. The process of attracting debt financing to the renewable energy sector is complex and ambiguous. The applied project financing is relevant only for large businesses, while the global energy paradigm is focused on decentralization and involvement of small-scale generation agents in the energy sector. Supply chain Finance (SCF) tools are relevant for both small and medium-sized businesses and large companies. Multinational and multicommodity corporations having significant assets at their disposal profitably transfer them in the contours of their portfolio strategies and at the stages of technological transformation of their supply chains, using such SCF tools as reverse factoring, supplier financing and purchase order financing. Small and medium-sized enterprises consider SCF as one of the additional ways of financing that does not increase the debt burden and can be issued with a minimum of documents.
10.18721/JEST.26406
334.7
renewable energy sector
regional strategy
commercial financing of renewable energy sources
managing supply chain financing
Russian alternative energy market
Arctic exploration
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.6/
Sologubova.pdf
RAR
RUS
87-99
Shishigin
Sergey
ctod28@vologda.ru
Shishigin
Smirnov
Ivan N.
CALCULATION OF LIGHTNING SURGES IN TRANSMISSION LINES USING ELECTRIC CIRCUITS CONSIDERING SOIL FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS
A lightning strike causes voltage surges in a transmission line, the spread of which is dangerous for the electrical equipment of electrical substations. The transmission line theory is usually used to simulate wave processes, but for the adequate consideration of the impulse corona and the earth-return impedance, it is necessary to split the line into elements so that an alternative approach using multi-link electric circuits becomes competitive. The impulse corona has a nonlinear characteristic, so calculations of wave processes are carried out in the time domain. The problem is that the earth-return impedance is defined in the frequency domain (according to the Carson formula), therefore at the moment it has to be simulated using complex equivalent circuits. This paper presents a time-discrete circuit of frequency-dependent earth-return impedance, which simplifies the solution. According to the recommendations of CIGRE, calculations of grounding systems for impulse effects are carried out in a soil model with frequency-dependent parameters. This recommendation was applied to the earth-return impedance, which allowed us to detect the effect of reducing the delay in wave propagation in high-resistance soil caused by an increase of the soil electrical conductivity at the first moment of the wave arrival. The reliability of the method is confirmed by comparison with experimental data, calculations by the Fourier method in the transmission line model, and calculations in the EMTP program.
10.18721/JEST.26407
621.316.93
power line
electric surges
lightning protection
impulse
mathematical models
electric grounding
electric corona
electric impedance
electric conductivity
frequency dependence
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.7/
Shishigin.pdf
RAR
RUS
100-111
Marenina
Lyubov' N.
Solovyeva
Olga A.
Galerkin
Yuriy
galerkin@pef.spbstu.ru
Popova
Elena Yu.
Kaminsky
Valeriy N.
DEVELOPMENT OF A PARAMETRIZED MODEL AND CALCULATION OF A POWER UNIT AXIAL COMPRESSOR
Computer programs for primary design based on mathematical models of pressure losses and A. Komarov’s model of flow deviation angle are used at the first stage of constructing axial compressors flow path. To conduct a gas-dynamics research using CFD methods, it is necessary to create a computational model of the flow path obtained as a result of the design. The paper describes the main points of creating a parameterized design model of a four-stage axial compressor. The parameterization is carried out in a way to ensure that the geometry obtained by the primary flow path design program is transferred to the ANSYS CFX software package. When copying the data, the blades, meridional contour and computational grids are constructed automatically. The resulting model is ready for further gas-dynamics calculations. The use of the parameterized model enables optimization with several adjustable parameters and various criteria of efficiency.
10.18721/JEST.26408
621.515
axial-flow compressors
parametrization
computational fluid dynamics
preliminary design
ANSYS
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.8/
Marenina.pdf
RAR
RUS
112-122
Shishov
Dmitriy M.
Shevtsov
Daniil A.
Sukhov
Dmitriy V.
SENSORLESS MOTOR CONTROLLER WITH AMPLITUDE-FREQUENCY-PHASE CONTROL
The paper considers development of a sensorless driver for a synchronous electric motor with permanent magnets is considered. The disadvantage of such popular methods for controlling AC motors as vector control and direct torque control is the use of a mathematical model of the motor. The proposed approach eliminates the need to use a mathematical model of the electric motor in the control process. This makes it possible to significantly simplify the structure of the regulator. The proposed method of amplitude-frequency-phase control allows achieving high levels of energy efficiency. The solution to the problem of starting an electric motor under load without using rotor position sensors is also shown. The principles of constructing the structure and circuit design of the regulator are described and the main results of modeling are presented. The authors list the main advantages of the proposed solution and describe the scope of its application.
10.18721/JEST.26409
62-523.2
electric drive
motor driver
permanent magnet synchronous motor
sensorless control
amplitude-frequency-phase control
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.9/
Shishov.pdf
RAR
RUS
123-131
Tyurikova
Demidov
Alexander
ph-chem@ftim.spbstu.ru
Novikov
Pavel
novikov.p.a@gmail.ru
Tyurikov
Kirill S.
NANOSIZED IRON OXIDE APPLICATION AS AN ADDITIVE TO A LITHIUM-ION BATTERY ANODE
The paper considers application of nanosized magnetite as an additive to the carbon matrix of a lithium-ion battery anode. We show that the use of 10–15 nm nanosized iron oxide Fe3O4 as an additive in the composition of the anode material Сarbon Black makes it possible to increase the capacity by almost 3 times: from approximately 250 mA·h·g–1 to 780 mA·h·g–1. Based on the results obtained, we propose a diagram of the sequence of intercalation–deintercalation processes of lithium ions into a carbon framework containing iron oxide molecules. The results obtained, confirmed by calculations and experimental studies, are fundamental for understanding the nature of the processes that affect the increase in the performance of batteries, as well as their applied nature for obtaining promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with increased electrical capacity.
10.18721/JEST.26410
621.355.9 547.311 546.722/3
lithium-ion battery
iron oxides
Fe3O4 nanoparticles
anodes
battery capacity
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.10/
Tyurikova.pdf
RAR
RUS
132-142
Kozik
Elena S.
Bogodukhov Stanislav I.
Stanislav I.
Shvidenko
Ekaterina V.
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF NON-OXIDATIVE HEATING ON THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF HARD ALLOY PRODUCTS
The most applicable methods for increasing the resistance of hard alloys are mechanical processing, application of wear-resistant films and coatings. Along with this, another area of interest of improving the operational properties of cutting tools is heat treatment. The common disadvantages of these methods are a slight increase in resistance and insufficient stability of the results obtained. In this regard, we conducted a series of experimental studies aimed at studying the effect of heat treatment of hard alloy products on their performance characteristics (hardness and wear resistance). The use of hardening technologies for processing cutting tools to reduce the instability of their cutting properties remains an urgent problem. There are various methods of hardening carbide cutting tools, which are divided into three groups: mechanical processing, coating and heat treatment. At the same time, heat treatment is a simple method providing acceptable results. The heat treatment conditions for powder cemented carbides differ from the treatment conditions for compact steels. Porosity intensifies many chemical processes during heat treatment due to considerable activity of the surface of the products manufactured by using powder materials, and enhances susceptibility to oxidation and decarburization during heating for hardening [1–22]. The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of heat treatment (heating temperature changes prior to quenching and tempering) on hardness, strength, bending and wear-resistant properties of cemented carbide samples.
10.18721/JEST.26411
671.622
cemented carbide products
non-oxidative heating
hardness
strength
wear
https://engtech.spbstu.ru/article/2020.114.11/
Kozik.pdf