The paper is devoted to the developed and validated method of the quantitative analysis for the structure of multiphase alloys with disperse inclusions. The method is based on sharing raster electron microscopy and X-ray spectral microanalysis. There have been revealed experimental features of the method. The paper presents the parameters which have been established to control setting up the automated program during the use of the method. There have been formulated requirements to prepare a metallographic sample and to interpret results of the alloy structure analysis.The developed method has been applied for the quantitative research into the change of the structure of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys at lasting high-temperature endurance. The paper confirms reliability and high precision of the method.