The article describes the contributions made by D.K. Chernov to organizing the Department of Metallurgy of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. Refusing to participate in the work of the Polytechnic Institute personally, Chernov recommended his successor as chief metallurgist of the Obukhov Plant, engineer A.A. Rzheshotarsky, as a worthy candidate for the Department of Metallurgy. Rzheshotarsky contributed to organizing teaching and practical work in the Department of Metallurgy. Rzheshotarsky recommended to invite A.A. Baykov, future academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, to teach the disciplines of the metallurgical cycle. One of Baykov’s important achievements in the field of metallography was popularizing, following in Chernov’s and Rzheshotarsky’s footsteps, methods of metallographic research in Russia. The article describes the great contribution to development of materials science made by graduates of the Polytechnic Institute, academicians of the USSR Academy of Sciences G.V. Kurdyumov and I.V. Gorynina, as well as the rector of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University Peter the Great academician A.I. Rudskoy.